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The Federalist Papers
"Vice-President Van Cortlandt with the members of the convention appeared in front of the court-house, and the secretary, Robert Benson mounted upon a barrel, read the immortal document to the assembled multitude (1877) The Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs: Picture Collection, The New York Public Library. New York Public Library Digital Collections. https://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/510d47e0-f5c0-a3d9-e040-e00a18064a99
Exhibits

The Federalist Papers

Part I | The Challenge and the Outline


Part II | “The Utility of the Union”

Federalist Papers
Alexander Hamilton. Photo, 1896, of painting by John Trumbull. Library of Congress, https://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print.
  • Federalist 2: Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force & Influence, John Jay
  • Federalist 3: The same Subject continued, John Jay
  • Federalist 4: The same Subject continued, John Jay
  • Federalist 5: The same Subject continued, John Jay
  • Federalist 6: Concerning Dangers from War between the States, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 7: The subject continued, and Particular Causes Enumerated, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 8: The effects of Internal War in producing Standing Armies, and other institutions unfriendly to liberty, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 9: The Utility of the Union as a Safeguard against Domestic Faction and Insurrection, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 10: The same Subject continued, James Madison
  • Federalist 11: The Utility of the Union in respect to Commerce and a Navy, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 12: The Utility of the Union in respect to Revenue, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 13: The same Subject continued, with a view to Economy, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 14: An Objection drawn from the Extent of Country, Answered

Part III | The “Insufficiency” of the Articles of Confederation

Articles of Confederation (Lancaster: Francis Bailey, 1777) New-York Historical Society Library
  • Federalist 15: Concerning the Defects of the Present Confederation, in Relation to the Principle of Legislation for the States in their Collective Capacities, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 16: The same Subject continued, in relation to the same Principles, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 17: The Subject continued, and Illustrated by Examples, to Show the tendency of Federal Governments, rather to Anarchy among the Members, than Tyranny in the Head, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 18: The Subject continued, with further Examples, James Madison
  • Federalist 19: The Subject continued, with further Examples, James Madison
  • Federalist 20: The Subject continued, with further Examples, James Madison
  • Federalist 21: Further defects of the present Constitution, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 22: The same subject continued, and concluded, Alexander Hamilton

Part IV | The Minimum “Energetic” Government Requirement

  • Federalist 23: The necessity of a government, at least equally energetic with the one proposed, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 24: The subject continued, with an answer to an objection concerning standing armies, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 25: The subject continued, with the same view, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 26: The subject continued with the same view, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 27: The subject continued, with the same view, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 28: The same subject continued, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 29: Concerning the militia, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 30: Concerning taxation, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 31: The same subject continued, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 32: The same subject continued, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 33: The same subject continued, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 34: The same subject continued, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 35: The same subject continued, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 36: The same subject continued, Alexander Hamilton

Part V | “The Great Difficulty of Founding”

Presidential Portraits
James Madison, John Vanderlyn (1816) White House Collection/White House Historical Association, https://www.whitehousehistory.org/galleries/presidential-portraits.

The Difficulty with Demarcations and Definitions

  • Federalist 37: Concerning the difficulties which the convention must have experienced in the formation of a proper plan, James Madison
  • Federalist 38: The subject continued, and the incoherence of the objections to the plan, exposed, James Madison
  • Federalist 39: The conformity of the plan to republican principles: an objection in respect to the powers of the convention, examined, James Madison
  • Federalist 40: The same objection further examined, James Madison

The Difficulty of Federalism

  • Federalist 41: General view of the powers proposed to be vested in the union, James Madison
  • Federalist 42: The same view continued, James Madison
  • Federalist 43: The same view continued, James Madison
  • Federalist 44: The same view continued and concluded, James Madison
  • Federalist 45: A further discussion of the supposed danger from the powers of the union, to the state governments, James Madison
  • Federalist 46: The subject of the last paper resumed; with an examination of the comparative means of influence of the federal and state governments, James Madison

The Difficulty of Republicanism

  • Federalist 47: The meaning of the maxim, which requires a separation of the departments of power, examined and ascertained, James Madison
  • Federalist 48: The same subject continued, with a view to the means of giving efficacy in practice to that maxim, James Madison
  • Federalist 49: The same subject continued, with the same view, James Madison
  • Federalist 50: The same subject continued, with the same view, James Madison
  • Federalist 51: The same subject continued, with the same view, and concluded, James Madison

Part VI | “The True Principles of Republican Government”

The House of Representatives

  • Federalist 52: Concerning the house of representatives, with a view to the qualifications of the electors and elected, and the time of service of the members, James Madison
  • Federalist 53: The same subject continued, with a view of the term of service of the members, James Madison
  • Federalist 54: The same subject continued, with a view to the ratio of representation, James Madison
  • Federalist 55: The same subject continued, in relation to the total number of the body, James Madison
  • Federalist 56: The same subject continued, in relation to the same point, James Madison
  • Federalist 57: The same subject continued, in relation to the supposed tendency of the plan of the convention to elevate the few above the many, James Madison
  • Federalist 58: The same subject continued, in relation to the future augmentation of the members, James Madison
  • Federalist 59: Concerning the regulation of elections, James Madison
  • Federalist 60: The same subject continued, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 61: The same subject continued, and concluded, Alexander Hamilton
The Federalist Papers
John Jay. Asher B. Durand (1796鈥1886) after Gilbert Stuart and John Trumbull (1754-1829) New-York Historical Society Library, Department of Prints, Photographs, and Architectural Collections,

The Senate

  • Federalist 62: Concerning the constitution of the senate, with regard to the qualifications of the members; the manner of appointing them; the equality of representation; the number of the senators, and the duration of their appointments, James Madison
  • Federalist 63: A further view of the constitution of the senate, in regard to the duration of the appointment of its members, James Madison
  • Federalist 64: A further view of the constitution of the senate, in regard to the power of making treaties, John Jay
  • Federalist 65: A further view of the constitution of the senate, in relation to its capacity, as a court for the trial of impeachments, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 66: The same subject continued, Alexander Hamilton

The Presidency

  • Federalist 67: Concerning the constitution of the president: a gross attempt to misrepresent this part of the plan detected, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 68: The view of the constitution of the president continued, in relation to the mode of appointment, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 69: The same view continued, with a comparison between the president and the king of Great Britain, on the one hand, and the governor of New York, on the other, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 70: The same view continued, in relation to the unity of the executive, and with an examination of the project of an executive council, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 71: The same view continued, in regard to the duration of the office, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 72: The same view continued, in regard to the re-eligibility of the president, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 73: The same view continued, in relation to the provision concerning support, and the power of the negative, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 74: The same view continued, in relation to the command of the national forces, and the power of pardoning, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 75: The same view continued, in relation to the power of making treaties, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 76: The same view continued, in relation to the appointment of the officers of the government, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 77: The view of the constitution of the president concluded, with a further consideration of the power of appointment, and a concise examination of his remaining powers, Alexander Hamilton
United States Continental Congress
Articles of Confederation
Lancaster [Pa.]: Printed by Francis Bailey, [1777]
New-York Historical Society Library

The Judiciary

  • Federalist 78: A view of the constitution of the judicial department in relation to the tenure of good behaviour, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 79: A further view of the judicial department, in relation to the provisions for the support and responsibility of the judges, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 80: A further view of the judicial department, in relation to the provisions for the support and responsibility of the judges, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 81: A further view of the judicial department, in relation to the distribution of its authority, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 82: A further view of the judicial department, in reference to some miscellaneous questions, Alexander Hamilton

Five Miscellaneous Republican Issues

  • Federalist 83: A further view of the judicial department, in relation to the trial by jury, Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist 84: Concerning several miscellaneous objections, Alexander Hamilton

“A Citizen of the State of New-York” (John Jay), An Address to the People of the State of New-York on the Subject of the Constitution (New York: Samuel and John Loudon, 1788) New-York Historical Society Library

Part VII | Analogy to State Governments and Added Security to Republicanism